Back in the 20th century, Relativity is one of the most popular scientific theories. But, do you know how far it can explain the things in your daily lives?
The man behind this theory is Albert Einstein. It was in 1905 he formulated the theory. This theory stated that the laws of physics are the same everywhere. Also, the theory tells about the behavior of objects in space and time. We can use this theory to predict the presence of black holes or light bending because of gravity. Even we can use this theory to learn the behavior of Mercury in its orbit.
Basically, the theory is so simple. First, it tells us that there is no “absolute” frame of reference. So, anytime you measure the velocity or the momentum of objects, or how it experiences time, it always in relation to other things. Second, the speed of light is always the same regardless of the person who measures it or how fast the person measuring it. Third, no one can even go faster than light.
So, if the speed of light is always the same, we can say that an astronaut goes very fast relative to the Earth and the time slows down for the astronauts. Here, this phenomenon is known as time dilation. So, if you wonder how we can see several examples of relativity in our daily lives or technologies we use today, here are some ways you can try for.
It is a relativistic effect that if you use a loop of wire and then move it through a magnetic field, you can produce an electric current. How does it happen? The changing magnetic field affected the wire and then forced some of them to move to create the current.
A professor of physics at Ponoma College in Claremont, California called Thomas Moore used this principle to demonstrate why Faraday’s Law is true when it is saying that changing magnetic field creates an electric current. Moore said that this is the core principle of transformers and electric generators. Therefore, if you use electricity, it is about the effects of relativity.
Have you wondered how to make your GPS navigation to function accurately? The answer would be the satellites. In fact, satellites need to take relativistic effects. Satellites are not moving at anything close to the speed of light. They are going quite fast and they are sending signals to the ground stations on Earth. The stations are experiencing higher accelerations because of the gravity than the satellites in orbit.
How to get the pinpoint accuracy? The satellite needs clocks that are accurate. Satellite is about 12,600 miles above Earth and it moves about 6,000 miles per hour. So, there are a relativistic time dilation tacks on 4 microseconds per day. The effect of gravity also adds it to go up to 7 microseconds.
5. Gold and Its Yellow Color
Mostly, metals are shiny since they have electrons in the atoms that jump from different energy levels. Some photons that hit the metal will be absorbed and re-emitted at the longer wavelength.
Additionally, gold is a heavy atom with the inner electrons that can move quite fast that relativistic mass increase is significant, together with the length contraction. Therefore, the electrons spin around the nucleus, both in the shorter paths. This condition is followed by more momentum.
After that, the electrons in the inner orbital bring the energy that is closer to the energy of the outer electrons. The wavelengths then get absorbed and reflected, but in a longer period. The combination of less blue and violet in it makes gold looks yellowish in color.
4. Gold Does Not Corrode Easily
Why does metal does not corrode or react with anything else easily? The answer would be the relativistic effect on gold electrons.
So, gold has one electron in its outer shell. This one is not as reactive as lithium or calcium. But, the electrons are heavier than they should be. They are held closer to the atomic nucleus. So, the outermost electron is not in a place where it can react with anything.
3. Mercury is A Liquid
Mercury is also a heavy atom. Electrons held close to the nucleus since the speed and the consequent mass increase. The bonds between atoms in mercury are weak. Therefore, mercury can melt at a lower temperature. Typically, we see it as a liquid.
2. Your TV
Most monitors and televisions had cathode ray tube screens a few years ago. If you wonder about a cathode ray tube, it works to fire electrons at the phosphor surface, with the help of a big magnet. When each electron hits the back of the screen, it makes a lighted pixel. So, the electrons fired out to make the picture move at up to 30% of the speed light. So, we can say that relativistic effects are noticeable. Interestingly, manufacturers had to measure the effects when they shape the magnets.
Isaac Newton assumed that there is an absolute rest frame but we have a different explanation for light. So, relativity requires that changes in the electromagnetic field move at the finite speed, not instantaneously. If the changes in electric fields were communicated instantaneously, both light and magnetism would be unnecessary.